Oxide and Non-oxide Ceramics

Oxide ceramics are inorganic compounds of metallic (e.g., Al, Zr, Ti, Mg) or metalloid (Si) elements with oxygen. Oxides can be combined with nitrogen or carbon to form more complex oxynitride or oxycarbide ceramics. Oxide ceramics have high melting points, low wear resistance, and a wide range of electrical properties.

Non-oxide ceramics are technical Ceramics that are classed as inorganic, non-metallic materials. They exhibit covalent bonds, can be conductive (carbides) and non-conductive (nitrides)

They include carbides, nitrides, borides, silicides and others. Their applications range from superhard abrasives (B4C, BN) and cutting tools (WC), to rocket nozzles (TiB2), electrodes for metal melts (ZrB2) and heating elements (MoSi2). The most important structural non-oxide ceramics are silicon carbide SiC, silicon nitride Si3N4 and the so-called sialons, nitride-based ceramics with varying oxide contents. Non-oxides must undergo high temperature processing in reducing or inert atmosphere to prevent oxidation. Furthermore, their strong and predominantly covalent (i.e. directional) atomic bonds inhibit atomic migration (diffusion) so that solid-state sintering below the decomposition temperature (approx. 2500 °C for SiC, approx. 1900 °C for Si3N4) is limited. Liquid-phase sintering or reaction-bonding techniques are necessary for densification.

  • Alumina ceramics
  • Magnesia ceramics
  • Zirconia ceramics
  • Aluminum titanate ceramics
  • Carbides and Nitrides
  • Borides and Silicides

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